The Town of Nederland is a Statutory Town located near Barker Meadow Reservoir in the mountains of southwest Boulder County, Colorado, United States. As of the 2010 census it had a population of 1,445.
The town started as a trading post between Ute Indians and European settlers during the 1850s. The town's first economic boom came when minerals such as tungsten, silver, and gold were discovered near Tungsten (east of Nederland), Caribou (northwest of Nederland, 1859), and Eldora (west of Nederland, 1875).The town was first called Dayton, then Browns Crossing. In 1871, when the US Postal Service first set up an office, the name was changed to Middle Boulder after the creek that flows though the center of town.In 1874 the town was incorporated and adopted Nederland as the official name.