Niles is a village in Maine and Niles townships, Cook County, Illinois, United States. The 2010 population from theU.S. Census Bureau was 29,803.
Niles was first settled in 1827. The village of Niles was incorporated on August 24, 1899. Article 4 of the Treaty of Prairie du Chien, signed between the United States government and several chiefs of the Chippewa, Ottawa, and Potawatamie left particular tracts of land to individuals of mixed-Native American ancestry. Among these individuals were Billy Caldwell, Victoria Pothier, and Jane Miranda.There is no clear indication of the origin of the name "Niles." In 1929, the Chicago Tribune ran an article opining that the name was taken from the Niles Register, a newspaper published in the 1820s out of Washington, D.C., and distributed nationally; however, no proof of that has yet been discovered; accounts state only that the name was chosen at public meeting prior to township organization in 1850.Another belief is that the name "Niles" was named after Niles Construction which did much of the building early during the city's founding.Niles was the first community in Illinois and one of the first in the United States to establish free ambulance service, in 1946.