Poolesville is a town in the western portion of Montgomery County, Maryland. The population was 4,883 at the 2010 United States Census.
In 1760, brothers John Poole, Sr. and Joseph Poole, Sr. purchased 160 acres (0.65 km2; 0.25 sq mi) acres in the area that is now Poolesville. Thirty-three years later, John Poole, Jr. used a 15 acres (0.061 km2) tract that he inherited from his father to build a log store and subdivided the tract, selling portions to a number of other merchants. The settlement grew from there and was incorporated in 1867. The Seneca Schoolhouse, a small one-room schoolhouse of red sandstone, was built in Poolesville in 1866 to educate the children of the stone cutters who worked at the Seneca Quarry. Operating as the Seneca Schoolhouse Museum, it provides tours to schoolchildren so that they can experience a typical school day as it would have been on March 13, 1880.The Kunzang Palyul Choling Buddhist temple opened in Poolesville in 1985.The Poolesville Historic District was listed in 1975 on the National Register of Historic Places.