Philadelphia (/?f?l??d?lfi?/) is the largest city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the fifth-most populous in theUnited States, with an estimated population in 2014 of 1,560,297.
Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape (Delaware) Indians in the village ofShackamaxon. The Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are also called Delaware Indians and their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island and the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases, mainly smallpox, and violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people occasionally fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin. TheAmerican Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west. In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma and surrounding territory) under theIndian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape now reside in the US state of Oklahoma, with some communities living also inWisconsin, Ontario (Canada) and in their traditional homelands.