Shelbyville is a city in Shelby County, Illinois, along the Kaskaskia River. As of the 2010 census, the population was at 4,700. It is the county seat of Shelby County. Shelby Memorial Hospital, located in town, is the county's only hospital.
According to the 2010 census, Shelbyville has a total area of 4.016 square miles (10.40 km2), of which 3.83 square miles (9.92 km2) (or 95.37%) is land and 0.186 square miles (0.48 km2) (or 4.63%) is water.
Shelbyville was founded in 1827 and named in honor of Isaac Shelby, hero of the Revolutionary War and Governor of Kentucky. The history of Shelbyville begins with Barnett Bone, a Tennessean who, in 1835, built a log cabin along the Kaskaskia River. His cabin eventually became the county courthouse. The first businesses were blacksmith shops, a general store and stage coach stop, and agrist mill.